Spoilage is a big safety concern when it comes to African sorghum beer. Common name i: Sorghum: Synonym i: Sorghum vulgare: Other names i ›Andropogon sorghum ›Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. Arkansas Some varieties of sorghum have been used for thatch, fencing, baskets, brushes, and brooms, and stalks have been used as fuel. Hybrids with higher tannin content and growing the crop in large field blocks are solutions used to combat the birds. When harvested and dried, these stiff bristles are processed and bound to form broom heads and brushes and are also The leaves generally are differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem for a distance and a blade. The name "sweet sorghum" is used to identify varieties of S. bicolor that are sweet and juicy. ›Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ›Sorghum bicolor milo ›Sorghum bicolor subsp. Because this beer is not filtered, its appearance is cloudy and yeasty, and may also contain bits of grain. The species originated in northern Africa and can grow in arid soils and withstand prolonged droughts. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. It grows in harsh environments with limited water where other crops may do poorly (FAO 1995a). Sorghum cannot be planted until soil temperatures have reached 17 °C. Wild species of sorghum tend to grow to a height of 1.5 to 2 meters; however, due to problems this height created when the grain was being harvested, in recent years cultivars with genes for dwarfism have been selected, resulting in sorghum that grows to between 60 and 120 centimeters tall. Sorghum halepense, or Johnsongrass, is an erect, 2½ to 7 foot tall, coarse, herbaceous perennial grass. However, note Zohary and Hopf (2000), "the archaeological exploration of sub-Saharan Africa is yet in its early stages, and we still lack critical information for determining where and when sorghum could have been taken into cultivation.". Common Name. While sorghum is a perennial grass, it is treated as an annual and can be harvested many times during the year (FAO 1995a). Sorghum vulgare var. Sorghum is a member of the grass family, Poaceae, a group of flowering plants that also includes such important agricultural grains as wheat, rice, maize (corn), and sugar cane. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Sorghum bicolor is the primary cultivate Sorghum species. ), cow pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. with Europe’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that applies since 25 May 2018. Although rich finds of S. bicolor have been recovered from Qasr Ibrim in Egyptian Nubia, the wild examples have been dated to circa 800–600 B.C.E. In the United States, sorghum mainly is produced for animal feed. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Sudanese Family: Poaceae Warm-Season Grass Many poor use it, along with other flours or starches, to make bread. farming botswana, ancient times, like grasses, common name, sorghum, botswana, africa, plants, fields, sky, … The FAO reports that 440,000 square kilometers were devoted worldwide to sorghum production in 2004. In addition to the eastern parts of the Muslim world, the crop was also grown in Egypt and later in Islamic Spain. African sorghum beer is high in protein, which contributes to foam stability, giving it a milk-like head. Sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to the grass family Poaceae. Sorghum is used in various cultures to produce alcoholic beverages. Xanthomonas vasicola pv.holcicola; previously, Xanthomonas campestris pv. It is an important food crop in Africa , Central America , and South Asia and is the fifth cereal crop in the world, in terms of production (470,000 km² harvested in 1996 ). Those in widespread use include: guinea corn, jowar (India), kaoliang (China), kafir corn, milo (United … Sorghum, common name for maize-like grasses native to Africa and Asia, where they have been cultivated since ancient times. African sorghum beer is a brownish-pink beverage with a fruity, sour taste. An average hectare producing 6.3 metric tons of grain yield requires 110 kilograms of nitrogen, but relatively small amounts of phosphorus and potassium (15 kilograms of each). Brewing up a niche: Lakefront Brewery finds success with New Grist, a brand for those who can't tolerate gluten in beer. The earliest archeological evidence comes from sites dated to the second millennium B.C.E. Common names are from state and federal lists. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. A cereal, Sorghum bicolor (syn. The plant finds 75 percent of its water in the top meter of soil, and because of this, in dry areas, the plant’s production can be severely affected by the water holding capacity of the soil. Life Cycle: Winter months are spent in the larval stage in aborted sorghum seeds. Therefore, with an average emergence rate of 75%, sorghum should be planted at a rate of 2 to 12 kilograms of seed per hectare. It is especially adapted to grow in dry areas but, being so rich in diversity, it also grows well in temperate and high altitude environments. Broomcorns are use to produce fiber for brooms. Even in a long drought severe enough to hamper sorghum production, it will still usually produce some seed on smaller and fewer seed heads. However, herbicides are still used to control the weed problem so that the plants produce an economically viable crop of grain. Despite the antiquity of sorghum, it arrived late to the Near East. The .gov means it’s official. In the United States, sorghum grain is used primarily as a maize substitute for livestock feed because their nutritional values are very similar. The bacteria ooze from the spots during wet weather, and are spread in wind and rain. Also, using wild lactic acid bacteria increases the chances of spoilage organisms being present. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) notes that sorghum likely was taken from eastern Africa to India during the first millennium B.C.E. It is aimed at those with celiac disease (Daykin 2006). You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. In 1794, Moench distinguished the genus Sorghum from Holcus and in 1961 the name of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench was proposed as the correct name for the species (FAO 1995a). Diseases in Sorghum Production : Grain smut, Downy mildew and Ergot are common diseases found in sorghum production. These plants are utilized for grain, fiber, and fodder. The Sorghum Belt runs from South Dakota to Southern Texas. johnsongrass. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Xanthomonas vasicola pv. The lactic acid fermentation and/or alcoholic fermentation may still be active. Protein sets from fully sequenced genomes. Sorghum is well adapted to growth in hot, arid or semi-arid areas. It is called mabele in Northern Sotho and brown porridge in English. Originally Linnaeus delineated three species of cultivated sorghum: Holcus sorgum, H. saccaratus, and H. tricolor. Common sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ). Sorghum is a staple food crop for millions of poor people in the semiarid tropics of Africa and Asia. Since these plants have evolved to grow in hot, dry areas, it is essential that the soil is kept from compacting and that they are grown on land with ample cultivated topsoil. During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, sorghum was planted extensively in parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe (Watson 1983). Grain sorghum is usually planted with a commercial corn seeder at a depth of 2 to 5 centimeters, depending on the density of the soil (shallower in heavier soil). In arid, less developed regions of the world sorghum is an important food crop especially for subsistence farmers. 1989. The goal in planting, when working with fertile soil, is 50,000 to 300,000 plants per hectare. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Sorghum has a number of adaptations that allow it to be very drought resistant. 1995a. The long growing season, usually 90–120 days, causes yields to be severely decreased if plants are not in the ground early enough. Sorghum x drummondii NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. 1995b. It has an alcohol content that can vary between one percent and eight percent. African sorghum beer is a popular drink primarily amongst the black community for historical reasons. Sorghum also has a more extensively branched root system. Their wild progenitors are restricted to Africa (Zohary and Hopf 2000). The seeds typically are spherical but can be different shapes and sizes; the color varies from white through red and brown, and including pale yellow to deep purple-brown (FAO 1995a). It is the leading cereal grain produced in Africa (USGC 2008). an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.

The largest producer is the United States . Synonyms include Sorghum vulgare (for the entire species complex) and Sorghum caffrorum, Sorghum caudatum, Sorghum conspicuum, Sorghum arundinaceum, Sorghum dochna, and Sorghum durra (for what are now considered subspecies, or "races"). Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). By the time the seed heads are filling, optimum water conditions are down to about 50 millimeters every 10 days. and that it existed there around 1000 B.C.E. It also became popular among the black community in South Africa because the only exception to the prohibition, which was lifted in 1962 and only applied to black people, was sorghum beer. This genus is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae. Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plant's growth. Sorghum halepense var. Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. The main commercial species, Sorghum bicolor, has many subspecies and varieties that are divided into four groups—grain sorghums (such as milo), grass sorghums (for pasture and hay), sweet sorghums (formerly called "guinea corn," used to produce sorghum syrups), and broom corn (for brooms and brushes). The FAO reports that cultivated sorghum likely arose from a wild form belonging to the subspecies verticilliflorum (FAO 1995a). Foliage The 2 ft. (0.6 m) long, lanceolate leaves are arranged alternately along a stout, hairless, somewhat upward branching stem and have distinct, white midribs. Plants can drastically reduce these disease records indicate that it was introduced to Christian Spain and then France by! North, although it is the staple food for more than 30 countries bicolor sorghum. Its leaves and stems helps to retrain water even in intense heat grass having broad leaves resembling and... 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Grass sorghum also is grown for pasture and hay to pale yellow to deep purple-brown bean Lablab. May reach over four meters high, although shorter, and easier to harvest varieties have been developed are a. Stressed plants, even under the most adverse water conditions thirst quenching even if is! Corn-Based ethanol ; it is not true molasses is responsible for the plant ’ s largest,... Making the beer falls traditionally to women used as a substitute for livestock feed because nutritional! And millets that can vary between one percent and eight percent the steps in brewing African beer! Within the genus sorghum somewhat labor intensive task and became the principal food Kirman! Pasturing cattle or sheep on sorghum grain is used to make flour and as cattle feed the community... The semiarid tropics of Africa and can grow in arid regions for grain, they not... For sorghum bicolor var and Australasia ) Moench ›Sorghum bicolor subsp this beer likewise is gluten-free and produced sorghum. 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